||George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff was born in 1877 in Alexandropol and trained in Kars as both a priest and a physician. For some twenty years, Gurdjieff travelled in the remotest regions of Central Asia and the Middle East. These years were crucial in the moulding of his thought. On his return, he began to gather pupils in Moscow before the First World War and continued his work with a small party of followers while moving, during the year of the Russian revolution, to Essentuki in the Caucasus, and then through Tiflis, Constantinople, Berlin and London to the Chateau du Prieure near Paris, when he re-opened his Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man in 1922 on a larger scale. He died in 1949.